How do satellites in space work?

 

There are many different types of satellites. The moon is a satellite, a natural satellite, there are also artificial satellites, like the International Space Station, where there are currently 7 humans living. Other satellites include things like communications satellites, internet satellites, and radio satellites. Let's focus on internet satellites to explain how it works.

Most satellites use a series of radio waves to communicate with other satellites, or to us here on our home planet, Earth. Depending on how high the satellite is orbiting Earth, your connection will either be slower or faster. If you have a satellite orbiting at a high earth orbit, the satellite will be very far causing your connection to it to be relatively slow, but if you have a satellite in low earth orbit, your connection will improve, by a LOT. 

Satellites aren't just always above you, in order for them to remain in space and not fall back down to earth, and burn up in our atmosphere, they must orbit Earth, at an insane speed of at least around 17,500 mph for low earth orbit. That's about 10x faster than a bullet. Now, because of this, the satellite won't be in a certain area for that long, before reaching the other side of Earth in about 90 minutes. This causes you to have only a very short temporary connection to the satellite before it is way below the horizon. What you can do to fix this, is instead of having one satellite, you can have an entire satellite constellation orbiting Earth, so that at least 1-5 satellites are always above you when you are standing on Earth, while the others are on the other side of Earth.

This doesn't just benefit you but benefits anyone else anywhere in the world who is accessing this satellite. As a satellite orbits earth, its orbital apogee slowly gets lower and lower, and its perigee also gets lower and lower, causing the satellite to eventually hit the atmosphere, produce drag, and burn up, ending in the destruction of the satellite. Apogee means the farthest point an object will get from Earth, and Perigee means the closest point an object will be from Earth. You can fix this issue of your orbit getting lowered over time by having little thrusters on your satellite, and when they detect that the satellite's orbit has lowered, they will fire up for a little bit to raise its orbit back to its operational orbit.